IMPORTANCE: Studies have shown oxidized low-density lipoprotein to be associated with the incidence of proliferative retinopathy and other complications of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Because low-risk interventions are available to modify oxidized low-density lipoprotein, it is important to examine the relationships between this factor and the incidence of proliferative retinopathy and of macular edema, 2 important causes of visual impairment in people with type 1 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of oxidized low-density lipoprotein with the worsening of diabetic retinopathy and the incidence of proliferative retinopathy and of macular edema. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Of 996 participants with type 1 diabetes in the Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy, 730 were examined up to 4 times (1990-1992, 1994-1996, 2005-2007, and 2012-2014) over 24 years and had assays of oxidized low-density lipoprotein and fundus photographs gradable for diabetic retinopathy and macular edema. Analyses started July 2014 and ended February 2015. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Worsening of diabetic retinopathy, incidence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and incidence of macular edema as assessed via grading of color stereo film fundus photographs. The levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein collected from serum samples at the time of each examination were measured in 2013 and 2014 from frozen serum. RESULTS: The cohort at baseline had a mean (SD) level of oxidized low-density lipoprotein of 30.0 (8.5) U/L. While adjusting for duration of diabetes, glycated hemoglobin A1c level, and other factors, we found that neither the level of oxidized low-density lipoprotein at the beginning of a period nor the change in it over a certain period was associated with the incidence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (hazard ratio [HR], 1.11 [95% CI, 0.91-1.35], P = .30; odds ratio [OR], 1.77 [95% CI, 0.99-3.17], P = .06), the incidence of macular edema (HR, 1.04 [95% CI, 0.83-1.29], P = .74; OR, 1.08 [95% CI, 0.44-2.61], P = .87), or the worsening of diabetic retinopathy (HR, 0.94 [95% CI, 0.83-1.07], P = .34; OR, 1.32 [95% CI, 0.83-2.09], P = .24). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Our findings do not provide evidence for a relationship between increasing levels of serum oxidized low-density lipoprotein and the incidence of macular edema or the worsening of diabetic retinopathy in persons with type 1 diabetes. The potential increase in the HR for incident proliferative retinopathy, with an increase in oxidized low-density lipoprotein level over the preceding period, warrants further investigation of this relationship.